Indian Constitution Features, few Articles, and Amendments

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Indian Constitution is a unique constitution and it is written by Dr. BR Ambedkar after the study of the constitution of other countries. It has the essence of all big countries’ constitutions.

The preamble

The people of India are resolved to constitute a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic and secure for all of its citizens.

It provides us liberty, justice, equality, and fraternity. It is accepted or adopted on 26 November 1949. It is the constitution that is for the people and by the people.

Salient features

  • Indian Constitution is the lengthiest written document of the constitutions in the world. It has 12 schedules and 448 articles in it.
  • It was borrowed from the constitution of other countries and its structure was taken from the Government of India Act, 1935. The Philosophical part was derived from the Amerian and Irish Constitutions and the Political part is taken from the British Constitution.
  • Indian Constitution has a federal system of Government. There is one form of Government at the center and one at the level of state but the constitution for all is the same.
  • The Indian Judiciary system is independent of the involvement of the government executive authorities. The Judges are appointed by the President of India and the Governor.
  • The Indian Constitution provides us the right to vote after the age of 18 years without any kind of discrimination.

Indian Constitution Day

It is celebrated on the 26 of November every year and is also known as national law day. On this day, the constituent assembly adopted the constitution and it came into effect on 26 January 1950.

Indian Constitution
Indian Constitution (Photo by Aaron Burden on Unsplash)

Articles in the Indian Constitution

Indian Constitution originally has 395 articles in it but due to amendments, there are 448 articles present in the constitution. Here I will tell you about some of the articles.

Article 13

This article is about Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of fundamental rights.

Every individual has fundamental rights and this law protects them. The courts can declare a law void if it infringes the fundamental rights. Judicial review plays a vital role in the implementation of new laws. We can say that article 13 provides power to courts and people.

Article 14

Article 14 provides equality to all persons before the law within the territory of India without any discrimination.

Article 15

It prohibits discrimination on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex, and place of birth. Everybody has access to roads, public transport, social places, shops, restaurants, etc. But this article does not prevent the government to make special provisions for women, children, backward casts, economically weaker sections, etc.

Article 19

This article protects our rights regarding freedom of speech and there are four points that are mentioned in this article.

  1. We have freedom of speech and expression.
  2. People Can assemble peacefully without any arms.
  3. Everyone Can form associations and unions.
  4. Everybody Can move freely throughout the territory of India.

Article 24

This article protects against the exploitation of children as child labor in factories or any other hazardous places who are below the age of 14.

Article 25

This article is about the freedom of conscience and free profession, practice, and propagation of religion. This law does not prevent the government to make any laws and implementing any existing laws.

Article 26

This law gives freedom to manage religious affairs. Due to public order, morality, and health, every religious denomination has some rights that are given below.

  1. The denomination has the right to establish and maintain the institution for religious and charitable purposes.
  2. Can manage its own affairs in matters of religion.
  3. To own and acquire movable and immovable property.
  4. To administer such property in accordance with the law.

Article 29

This article protects the interests of minorities and regarding that, there are 2 points that are mentioned in the constitution.

  1. Any section of the citizens residing in India has a different or distinct language, script, and culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same.
  2. No citizen shall be denied admission into an educational institution under the state and aided by state funds on the grounds of religion, race, caste, language, and any of them.

Article 30

This article provides the right to minorities to establish and administer the educational institute whether it is based on language or religion. Also, the government does not discriminate on the ground that it is under the management of minorities against such institutions while providing aid.

Article 45

This article provides the provision for child care and basic education below the age of six.

Article 142

This article is about the enforcement of decrees, orders of the supreme court, and orders as to discovery.

The Supreme Court in the exercise of its jurisdiction can pass an order to provide complete justice in any matter or cause pending before it. The order of the Supreme Court is enforceable throughout the territory of India in such a manner as prescribed under any law made by parliament.

Subject to the provisions of any law made on this behalf by Parliament, the Supreme Court shall, as respects the whole of the territory of India, have all and every power to make any order for the purpose of securing the attendance of any person, the discovery or production of any documents, or the investigation or punishment of any contempt of itself.

Article 226

This article gives power to the high courts to issue certain writs. According to this law, any person can go to high courts to file a writ of the petition when there is a violation of his fundamental rights. The authority against which the writ is filed should be within the territory of India otherwise it has no value.

Article 352

According to this law, the president can declare a national emergency when the security of India or any part of its territory is threatened by war, external aggression, and armed rebellion.

Father of Indian Constitution

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is the father of the Indian Constitution.

Fundamental Rights

There are 7 fundamental rights in the Indian Constitution that are given below.

  1. Right to equality
  2. Right to freedom
  3. Right against exploitation
  4. Right to freedom of religion
  5. Cultural and educational rights
  6. Right to property
  7. Right to constitutional remedies

Who drafted the Indian Constitution

Dr, Babasaheb Ambedkar the chairman of the drafting committee presented the final draft on 25 November 1949 to Dr. Rajendra Prasad. It is the drafting committee that drafted the Indian constitution. The drafting committee had 6 members excluding Dr. B. R. Ambedkar that are Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar, K.M. Munshi, Muhammad Sudallah, Gopala Swami Ayyanagar, N. Madhava Rao(replaced B.L. Mitter), and T.T. Krishnamachari(replaced D.P. Khaitan).

Schedules

There are 12 schedules in the Indian Constitution.

First Schedule:

1. The States 2. The Union Territories

Second Schedule:

PART A – Provisions as to the President and the Governors of States.
PART B – [Omitted.]
PART C – Provisions as to the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council of a State.
PART D – Provisions as to the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts.
PART E – Provisions as to the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.

Third Schedule: Forms of Oaths or Affirmations.

Fourth Schedule: Allocation of seats in the Council of States.

Fifth Schedule:

Provisions as to the Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes
PART A – General.
PART B – Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes.
PART C – Scheduled Areas.
PART D – Amendment of the Schedule.

Sixth Schedule: Provisions as to the Administration of Tribal Areas in the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram.

Seventh Schedule: Union List, State List, and Concurrent List.

Eight Schedule: Languages.

Ninth Schedule: Validation of certain Acts and Regulations.

Tenth Schedule: Provisions as to disqualification on grounds of defection.

Eleventh Schedule: Powers, authority, and responsibilities of Panchayats.

Twelfth Schedule: Powers, authority, and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc.

Amendments of the Indian Constitution

There were done 105 amendments to the constitution after its first enactment. To read about the recent amendments please follow the below article.

To download the Indian Constitution click here.

Suggested Read:

Note: All the information here is researched on the internet or Govt official websites and checked from trusted sites. But in case of any mistake then it is solved if you find any.

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Vinay Garg
Vinay Garg

Hi, My name is Vinay Garg and I am a civil engineer by profession. Now I am doing blogging, podcasting, and architect work. I hope you like my blog and comment on my blog posts because I like to reply the interesting comments.

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